Learn Chinese for Free—Lesson 298

Lesson 298 of 360

Today's Chinese characters:

靠至段评依形批宝社群座项释故景按顾登则围付江界织闻危斗双暗即境介采讨权攻设式密监临朝止类细永呼据值味仍规掉领属误确限速争否编楚状测率败甚互切风队且记达色死传吉却伯丽苏低求运改奇河取育举品威屋害破格基眼脸强露

This is step 3 of 5 of our review process. All characters are ordered according to their strokes number. Please, review all grammar points as explained in the Sentence Structure tables below.

Characters' Essentials

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kào
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xíng
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bǎo
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qún
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zuò
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xiàng
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shì
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jǐng
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àn
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dēng
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wéi
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jiāng
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jiè
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zhī
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wén
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wēi
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dòu
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shuāng
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àn
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jìng
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jiè
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cǎi
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tǎo
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quán
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gōng
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shè
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shì
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jiān
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lín
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cháo
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zhǐ
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lèi
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yǒng
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zhí
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wèi
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réng
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guī
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diào
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lǐng
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shǔ
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què
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xiàn
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zhēng
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fǒu
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biān
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chǔ
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zhuàng
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bài
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shèn
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qiē
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fēng
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duì
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qiě
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chuán
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qiú
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pǐn
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wēi
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hài
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liǎn
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qiáng
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lòu
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Description and Examples

Sentence Structure 1
The TTT Rule
Lesson 8

The TimeTimeTime rule can be applied to the way dates are shown in Chinese:

The word showing a longer period of time comes first.


Sentence Structure 2
The Complement of Result—Part 1
Lesson 12

The complement of result has the following structure:

Action (verb) + Result (verb or adjective)

This structure is used to show the result of the action expressed by a verb.

Example

明白

:
action (the action of listening)
明白:
result (understanding)

As we will see, both verbs and adjectives can be used to show the result of an action.

Negative Form

The negative form of the complement of result is formed by putting the negative adverb before the verb indicating the action, indicating that the expected result was not achieved.

Example

明白

The verb indicating the action and the verb/adjective showing the result are closely linked together and no element can be put between them, included.

The following is wrong

* 明白


Sentence Structure 3
Verbal Predicate Sentence
Lesson 16

A sentence with a verb as the main element of its predicate is called a verbal predicate sentence. If the verb takes an object, the object usually follows the verb.

Subject
Verb
Object
医生
Subject
老师
Verb
Object

Sentence Structure 4
The Declarative “是” Sentence—Part 1
Lesson 17

The "" sentence is a sentence with its predicate composed by the verb together with its object. Its declarative basic form is "AB".

Example

医生


Sentence Structure 5
The Negative “是” Sentence
Lesson 17

The negative form of the "" sentence is formed by putting the negative adverb before .

Example

你们医生


Sentence Structure 6
The Declarative “是” Sentence—Part 2
Lesson 17

The verb ties two things, indicating that they are identical or that the second explains or states the case of the first.

Both forms "AB" and "BA" are correct, but their meanings are slightly different. Examples:

Example

先生
The point here is which name I have.

先生
Here the point is who has that name.


Sentence Structure 7
“是” For Emphasis
Lesson 17

, stressed, may be used as an adverb to indicate certainty. For example, in a verbal predicate sentence it may be put before the verb.

Example


meaning: I really love her.


Sentence Structure 8
Surnames
Lesson 17

is also a Chinese surname, even if not at all common. Surnames must be put before titles. So let's say we find a teacher whose surname is . We would call her 老师 (that is SURNAME + TITLE) and would cacophonically say "老师".


Sentence Structure 9
Modifier+的+Noun
Lesson 18

A modifier (i.e. any word, phrase, or clause, except conjunctions, grammatical particles, interjections, and exclamations) is used in this structure to qualify or modify a noun (headword). is placed between modifier and headword.

MODIFIER + + HEADWORD

To make learning easier, the examples will be divided as follows:

  • Pronoun+的+Noun
  • Noun+的+Noun
  • Substantive+的+Noun
  • Time word+的+Noun
  • Place+的+Noun
  • Verb+的+Noun
  • Adjective+的+Noun
  • Adverb+的+Noun
  • Prepositional phrase+的+Noun
  • Onomatopoeia+的+Noun
  • Phrase+的+Noun

IMPORTANT: remember that the noun (headword) is always placed AFTER .


Sentence Structure 10
Pronoun+的+Noun
Lesson 18

This structure is used to indicate a relationship of belonging, possession, etc.

Let's take the phrase "my teacher" as example. Since "my" is the possessive genitive of "I", we would literally say "I teacher".

"My teacher" is literally: I teacher

that is:

老师

:
modifier
老师:
headword

Pronouns used as modifiers:

Chinese
English
my
Chinese
English
your (singular)
Chinese
English
his
Chinese
English
her
Chinese
English
its
Chinese
我们
English
our
Chinese
你们
English
your (plural)
Chinese
他们
English
their (of males, or males and females)
Chinese
她们
English
their (of females)
Chinese
它们
English
their (of animals or things)

Sentence Structure 11
In​flec​tion in Chinese?
Lesson 18

The concept of in​flec​tion, that is the change of form that nouns, verbs and adjectives undergo in English to mark such distinctions as those number, tense, or person is foreign to Chinese language, so that the phrase 老师 might be translated both as "my teacher" and "my teachers".

So the good news is that all English rules about inflection can just be ignored!


Sentence Structure 12
Noun+的+Noun
Lesson 18

This structure is used to indicate a relationship of belonging, possession, etc.

Examples of proper names or titles used as modifiers:

Chinese
Mary
Italian
Mary's
Chinese
老师
Italian
teacher's
Chinese
医生
Italian
doctor's

Examples

Mary 爱人
Antony 爱人
Antony 女人
老师爱人
老师女人
老师医生
医生老师


Sentence Structure 13
Modifier Without 的
Lesson 20

When a personal pronoun is used as a modifier and the headword is a word for relatives, parts of the body or units or collectives to which the pronoun belongs, the structural particle may be omitted.

Examples

Both are correct:

妈妈
妈妈


Sentence Structure 14
Adjectival Predicate Sentence
Lesson 23

The adjectival predicate sentence is a sentence with an adjective as the main element of its predicate. This type of sentence describes the state which a person or thing is in. No is used to join the predicate with the subject. In an affirmative sentence the adjectival predicate is usually preceded by , which is a weakened adverb here without much significance of an adverb of degree.

Examples


老师

Without , comparison or contrast is often implied.

Example

老师

However, in answering an alternative question, may be left out.

Example

A:
医生
B:
医生

is used before the predicate for negation.

Example

A:
医生
B:
医生

Sentence Structure 15
Adverb “也”
Lesson 24

The adverb must be placed after the subject and before the predicate.

Example

老师


Sentence Structure 16
The Elliptical Question With “呢”
Lesson 24

Elliptical questions may be formed by adding the modal particle to a noun, pronoun or nominal construction. The meaning of this kind of question is determined by the context.

Example

医生

meaning: "What about you? What's your profession?"

If asked without any context, it concerns the whereabouts of somebody or something. For example, if you meet Mary and just ask her "Lucy", it would mean "Where is Lucy?"


Sentence Structure 17
Adverb “都”
Lesson 24

The adverb must be placed after the subject and before the predicate verb or adjective. As a rule, it indicates all of the persons or things referred to by the preceding noun (phrase).

Examples

correct: 他们认识
wrong: *认识他们


Sentence Structure 18
Adverbs “也” And “都” Used Together
Lesson 24

When both the adverbs and are used to modify the same predicate, comes before .

Example

她们医生


Sentence Structure 19
The Conjunction “和”
Lesson 25

The conjunction is generally used to connect only nouns or pronouns. Don't use it to connect phrases.

Example


Sentence Structure 20
The Subject-Predicate Construction—Part 1
Used as the Predicate of a Sentence
Lesson 29

A subject-predicate construction can be used as the subject, the object or the predicate of a sentence. Here we pay special attention to its use as the predicate of a sentence.

When a sentence has a subject-predicate construction as its predicate, the person or thing denoted by the subject of this subject-predicate construction is often related to the subject of the whole sentence.

Example

身体

:
Subject of the sentence
身体:
Subject-predicate construction (used as the predicate of the sentence)
身体:
Subject of the subject-predicate construction
:
Predicate of the subject-predicate construction

Sentence Structure 21
Adverbial Adjuncts
Lesson 30

An adverbial adjunct is used to modify a verb or an adjective. Adverbs, adjectives, time words and prepositional constructions can all be used as an adverbial adjunct. They usually precede the part which is being modified.

Examples of adverbs used as an adverbial adjunct

他们

他们:
Subject
:
Adverbial adjunct
:
Verb

:
Subject
:
Adverbial adjunct
:
Adjective

Example of time word used as an adverbial adjunct

他们今天

他们:
Subject
今天:
Adverbial adjunct
:
Verb

Sentence Structure 22
Time Words used as adverbial adjuncts
Lesson 30

Time words are nouns or numeral-measure compounds indicating time.

They may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as adverbial adjuncts.

When used as an adverbial adjunct, time words generally come before the main element of the predicate.

Example

他们今天

Anyway, when special emphasis is laid on the time words, they may be shifted before the subject to the beginning of the sentence.

Example

今天他们
(emphasis on 今天)


Sentence Structure 23
Nominal Predicate Sentence—Part 1
Lesson 30

The sentence with a nominal predicate is a sentence in which the main element of the predicate is a noun, a nominal construction or a compound consisting of a numeral and a measure word.

In the affirmative sentence, is not used ( is used in the sentence with a verbal predicate).

This type of sentence is mainly used to show time, age, one's birthplace, and quantity.

Example

今年2001

今年:
Subject
2001:
Nominal Predicate

Sentence Structure 24
Time Words used as subjects
Lesson 30

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as subjects.

Example

今天三月

今天:
Subject

Sentence Structure 25
Time Words used as predicates
Lesson 30

Here we pay special attention to the use of time words as predicates.

Example

今天三月

三月:
Nominal Predicate

Sentence Structure 26
Time Words used as modifiers
Lesson 30

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as modifiers.

Example

明年今天

明年:
modifier

Sentence Structure 27
Time Words used as headwords in a "的" structure
Lesson 30

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as headwords in a "" structure.

Example

明年今天

今天:
headword

Sentence Structure 28
Nominal Predicate Sentence—Part 2
Lesson 30

The negative form of a nominal predicate sentence is made by using between the subject and the predicate, resulting in a sentence with a verbal predicate at the same time.

Examples

十二月星期五
今天


Sentence Structure 29
Time Words used as objects
Lesson 30

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as objects.

Example

今天星期天

星期天:
object

Sentence Structure 30
Numeral-Measure Compounds acting as modifiers
Lesson 34

In modern Chinese, numerals are generally not used to modify nouns directly. One needs to put specific measure words between them.

Examples


技师
律师


Sentence Structure 31
Measure Words Omission—Part 1
Lesson 34

Under certain circumstances, the measure word between a numeral and a noun is often omitted. Here we pay special attention to one specific situation.

When the numeral is a big number and the noun refers to people, then the measure word can be (and usually is) omitted.

Examples

朋友
医生
亿


Sentence Structure 32
Interrogative Word “什么”
Lesson 35

An interrogative word may be used to raise a question and it is placed where the answer is expected. Therefore, the word order of the answer is the same as that of the question, with the interrogative word being replaced by the corresponding answer. Here we pay special attention to the interrogative word 什么.

  1. 什么, when used alone as interrogative word, refers to things.

    Example

    Question: 什么

    Answer:

    Please note that the word order is the same in both answer and question. The interrogative word 什么 is in the same position of the part being questioned (that is the surname ).

  2. 什么, when used as an interrogative word before nouns, refers to things or persons.

    Examples

    什么? (What sort of person is he?)
    什么工作? (Which job?)


Sentence Structure 33
The Sentence with Verbal Constructions in Series—Part 1
Lesson 43

If a sentence with a verbal predicate is composed of two (or more) verbs or verbal phrases which share the same subject, it is known as the sentence with verbal constructions in series.

Example

面包

:
Subject
:
First Verbal Phrase
面包:
Second Verbal Phrase

Sentence Structure 34
The Sentence with Verbal Constructions in Series—Part 2
Indicating the purpose of an action
Lesson 43

In this kind of sentence with verbal constructions in series, the second verb (or verbal phrase) tells the purpose of the action indicated by the first verb (or verbal phrase).

Example

面包

:
Subject
:
Action
面包:
Purpose of the action

Sentence Structure 35
Interrogative Word “谁”
Lesson 57

As said in reference to 什么, an interrogative word may be used to raise a question and it is placed where the answer is expected. Here we pay special attention to the word used as an interrogative.

refers always to people.

Example

Question:

Answer:


Sentence Structure 36
Time Words used as complements
Lesson 58

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as complements.

Example

1999

1999:
complement

Sentence Structure 37
Interrogative Word “哪”
Lesson 59

Here we pay special attention to the word used as an interrogative.

refers both to people and to things. It means "which, what".

Example

Question:

Answer: 英国人


Sentence Structure 38
Questions with “是不是”
Lesson 61

The expression can be used to raise questions when the speaker wants to confirm what she already believes. can be placed at the beginning of the sentence, at the end of the sentence or between the subject and the predicate.

Examples

今天
今天
今天
明天星期五
今天二月


Sentence Structure 39
Interrogative Word “哪里”
Lesson 66

Here we pay special attention to the word 哪里 used as an interrogative.

It means "where".

Example

Question: 哪里

Answer: 东京


Sentence Structure 40
Interrogative Word “几”
Lesson 68

Here we pay special attention to the word used as an interrogative.

As you already know, an interrogative word is placed where the answer is expected. is no exception.

is used to ask about an estimated number under 10.

Exception: is used in asking about the month or day, even if they are numbers greater than 10.

Example 1

明天星期

When precedes a noun, a measure word is required between them.

Example 2

学生


Sentence Structure 41
The Question With “……,好吗?”
Lesson 68

It is a way of soliciting an opinion from the person you are talking to after making a proposal. The first part of the question is a declarative sentence.

If the reply is positive, just say .

Examples

我们明天
今天晚上你们


Sentence Structure 42
The Complement of Result—Part 2
Lesson 69

The complement of result is used to show the result of the action expressed by a verb.

Example

:
action (the action of looking)
:
result (actually seeing)

Both verbs and adjectives can be used to show the result of an action.

Example

:
action (the action of coming)
:
result (being late)

As said, the verb indicating the action and the verb/adjective showing the result are closely linked together and no element can be put between them. The object must be put after the structure Verb+Complement, and not in the middle.

Verb + Complement + Object

wrong: *

:
action
:
result
:
object

Sentence Structure 43
Particle “了”—Part 1
Lesson 69

The structural particle “” is mainly used in two different ways.

for completion”:
It is used after a verb (and before the object) or an adjective to indicate completion (of an action or of a change). The completion of the action or the change can refer to something that has already happened in the past or to something that is expected/supposed to happen in the future.

V + + O

for change”:
It is used at the end of a sentence or phrase (after the object, if present) to indicate a change or a new situation (in the past or in the future).

V + O +

In the next parts, we are going to analyse each one of the following possibilities, even if not in the same order:

  • V+(completion)+O
  • V+O+(change)
  • V+(completion)+O+(change)
  • V+(completion, change, or both)
  • A+(change, or completion and change)
  • "" and Numeral-Measure compounds
  • N+(change)
  • NM+(change)
  • Negative of ""
  • Questions with ""

Legend
A: adjective
N: noun
NM: Numeral-Measure compound
O: object
V: verb


Sentence Structure 44
Particle “了”—Part 2
Lesson 69

V+O+

In the structure Verb+Object+, is at the end of the sentence or phrase, after the object. It indicates a change or a new situation.

Example of at the end of the sentence or phrase:

:
verb (+ complement of result)
:
object
:
indicating a change (you didn't see him, but now you do)

Sentence Structure 45
Particle “了”—Part 3
Lesson 69

V+ (no object)—Part 1

In the structure "V+" without object, often indicates completion and change at the same time, or only change. In a few cases it indicates only completion.

1) Example 1 of indicating only completion:

高兴

The case of indicating only completion is limited to just one kind of structure, that is the one having a dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause) with followed by the main clause. In this case, the main clause's action/situation follows the completion of the dependent clause's action.

:
dependent clause
高兴:
main clause

2) Example of indicating completion and change at the same time:

:
verb
:
complement of result
:
indicates both completion and change. The completion of the action is implied in the complement of result. It indicates also a change (you didn't see, but now you do). Remember that completion alone occurs only in dependent clauses.

As said, the complement of result is closely linked to the verb, and no element can be put between them.

wrong:

3) Example of indicating only change:

As in this example, is often used to indicate a change that is going to happen soon.

:
not yet arrived...
!:
but it's going to happen very soon (as if it already happened)

Sentence Structure 46
非⋯不可
Lesson 90

The structure 不可 is essentially a double negation meaning "have to ...", "must ...", etc.

:
first negation (not)
⋯:
the action that has to be done (verb or verbal phrase)
不可:
second negation (cannot)

So, the phrase from the dialogue "不可" means "I had to come."

Other examples

不可


Sentence Structure 47
Particle “了”—Part 4
Lesson 129

V+ (no object)—Part 2

Example 2 of indicating only completion:

高兴

This is also a structure having a dependent clause with followed by the main clause. But in this case, it's a hypothetical situation where the dependent clause gives the assumed condition for the main clause's action/situation to be true.

:
dependent clause (if...)
高兴!:
main clause (then...)


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Lesson 298 of 360

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